People criticized economics and said “well, there’s something wrong with Austrian economics because it doesn’t depend on verifying things empirically,” Mises wanted to come up with a reply to that, so that was what really got him into philosophy.
What are the different concepts of financial risk? How do Austrian economists conceive of risk, uncertainty, and probability? Christian Hoffmann, parting ways with Mises, provides a taxonomy and cautions about the predominance of probability statistics in the realm of economics and finance.
There is a type of income effect in Austrian or causal-realist price theory, and the difference between neoclassical and Austrian microeconomics is smaller than has been portrayed, says Karl-Friedrich Israel.
Valuation of businesses must be based on appraisement, investment appraisal, and— terra incognita in Austrian economics—negotiation. Discounted cash flow and "relative valuation" methods are well-suited for negotiation purposes.